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Basic Concepts

Data Analysis & BI Terms

Categorical Variables

Labels that are assigned to a data field. For example, considering the dataset which represents an electoral, there are two categorical variables: people who voted and those who did not.


A method to analyze data by comparing two different sets of variables.

Continuous Variables

Data with a continuous range of values. For example, the total amount of rainfall recorded for September.


In Business Intelligence, after importing your data, the BI software would assign the columns from your data into different fields.


Types of data could be defined as integer, string, date, etc, while a role could be either dimension or measure.

Data Filtering

A method for analyzing data by filtering out a certain subset of data.


Collection of data that functions as the source for data visualization.

Data Visualization

Data that is presented in a visual form. Commonly presented to the audience with easy-to-digest, informative and insightful content in mind.


In Business Intelligence, a dimension means qualitative values of your data fields such as names and dates.


A method to analyze data by laying out the correlation of information and trying to grasp the interaction between variables.

Exploratory Data Analysis

The initial round of data analysis is to discover patterns, anomalies and test the waters for assumptions. Usually required the assistance of statistical and visualization tools.


The functionality that RATH provides to the end user. Features are listed as tabs on the left panel.


In Business Intelligence, a measure means numeric values of your data fields that you can measure, such as numbers.


The connection of correlation between two more data variables. For example, the price of oil versus the total global oil production volume.


A method for analyzing data by organizing the data in a certain order, such as in alphabetical order or from the smallest to largest.


A method to analyze data by producing a statistical summary. For example count, sum, mean, maximum, minimum.


Measure or attribute for a field.

RATH Features


A piece of data visualization chart that RATH generates and recommends with AI. A chart could be either a line chart, scatter plot, bar chart, pie chart, etc.

Graphic Walker

A module that is an open-source alternative to Tableau. It is also integrated within RATH as the Manual Exploration feature.

Manual Exploration

A tableau-alternative interface where you can manually edit a given chart. See: Graphic Walker.

Mega-auto Exploration

In this mode, RATH would analyze data sources and generate data visualizations while the user is fully off-handed.

Semi-auto Exploration

In this mode, RATH functions as a Data Exploration Copilot to assist the user in the data analysis process. RATH will understand the user's intent, suggest related data charts, and provide insights into your data source.


Vega is a visualization grammar, a declarative language for creating, saving, and sharing interactive visualization designs. With Vega, you can describe the visual appearance and interactive behavior of a visualization in a JSON format, and generate web-based views using Canvas or SVG. from Vega – A Visualization Grammar (opens in a new tab)

Other Data Analysis Concepts

UML Data Flow Diagram

A UML data flow diagram is a graphical representation of a system that shows how data flows through the system. It is used to model the data flows between different entities in a system.

Data Relationship Diagram (DRD)

A Data Relationship Diagram (DRD) is a graphical representation of the relationships between different entities in a data set. It is used to model the relationships between different entities and how they are connected.

Data Model Schema

A data model schema is a blueprint that defines how data is organized and structured in a database. It is used to define the relationships between different entities and how they are connected.

Entity Relationship Database (ERD)

An Entity Relationship Database (ERD) is a database model that is based on the Entity Relationship Model (ERM). It is used to create a visual representation of the data and the relationships between different entities.